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Konon Eagles
Konon Eagles

Lexicon Pantheon II VST V2 0 Peace Out Rar _BEST_

The reversal of peacebuilding proceeds in conjunction with the refusal of the failure of peacebuilding. One of the most visible transformations is the contemporary moment of Omanization, which is triggered by conditions like the Arab Uprisings, the Arab Spring, the Arab Winter, the rise of Daesh and the refugee crisis, and is generally triggered when liberal democracy is on the political trajectory to effect in the Middle East. The rise of the latter coupled with the political and economic turmoil in the West caught the international community off guard, and the Syrian and Yemeni crises, instigated by Daesh in 2014-15 (Abada 2017 ), undermined the foundations of the post-Cold War international institutions (Raney and Conrad 2015 ). In response, the liberal peace with its emphasis on rights and norms was found lacking. Concepts like resilience (Juncos and Joseph 2020 ) or adaptation (Juncos and Joseph 2018 ) were introduced and, presently, are the consensual findings of peacebuilding research. In other words, norm-based interventions were deemed sufficient to make for a safe and stable future, even if they did not (necessarily) evolve into liberal democracy (Gelissen, Özoguz, and Steinmacher 2018 ).

Lexicon Pantheon II VST V2 0 Peace Out Rar

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The refusal of the failure of peacebuilding marks a further development of the reversal of peacebuilding and has been more explicit. In the neo-liberal era, liberal peacebuilding championed by the United States under the Bush administration in the aftermath of the Cold War has been confronted by the rise of neoliberal order in the age of globalization. Neo-liberalism had already culminated in the liberal peace: the merging of liberal (economic) reforms into the diplomacy of the state (Wendt 1992 ) that was criticised by many scholars in the first instance for restricting the states diplomatic sphere and for inflicting untold damage on the very state institutions and structures upon which liberal peace-making had been based (Krein and Maimbs 2004 ; Rehman 2018 ). Since then, a backlash against the liberalism of liberal peace has been triggered by and against the West (Sakwa 2017 ) and especially the US (see, e.g., Ahsan, Kuzu, and Kaplan 2014 ). In other words, liberal peace has been laid to rest (Strawser 2007 ; Richmond, Pogodda, and Ramovic 2016 ). While liberal peacebuilding was the uncontested orthodoxy until 2011 and the EU proclaimed its commitment to liberal values (, now the West has been confronted by the rise of illiberal state-society relations in the Eurasian heartland, where the liberal West is not welcome (Fischer and Doménech 2017 ).


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